Custody transfer in tank gauge LTD

Industry in South Africa is moving vast quantities of petroleum and chemical products for export, import, local trade, and storage. Typically, international movements are transported by sea in tankers carrying large quantities. Once a ship arrives berthing costs begin to apply requiring a speedy transfer of the product. Flowmeters are inadequate in size, and the alternative is custody transfer by tank gauge LTD. However, there are some complications.

Gone are the days when it was acceptable in South Africa to transfer the custody of any product by measure providing that both parties are satisfied with the measuring equipment used. It is now necessary for the apparatus to be in accordance with a South African national standard written to detail the equipment requirements, and the method of use for this equipment. However, there is a major difficulty with this in South Africa, and that is there is no standard that covers custody transfer by tank gauge LTD.

Why required?

An obvious question comes to mind. Why is it necessary, since there is a standard for flow metering, and the transfer can be suitably monitored using this tried and trusted method? The reply in part is: flowmeters and checking devices are not large enough for metering the discharge from ocean-going supertankers.

Points for consideration

It should be remembered that in tank gauge LTD, the level measuring instrument itself is not the difficult component in these applications. The following parameters also need consideration.

1. The tank itself:

a. The deformation of the sides due to product level, product temperature, and ambient temperature.

b. The deformation of the floor due to product level, product temperature, and ambient temperature.

c. The deformation of the roof due to tank movement and loading on the roof.

2. The product conditions:

a. The temperature.

b. The pressure

c. The transfer is normally specified in standard units rather than measured units. This requires a density correction to the measured volume to obtain standard volume. In South Africa correction is to 20°C, however, 15°C and 60°F are also used.

3. The gauge support structure.

4. The amount of water in the bottom of the tank.

5. The operator interface.

This article comes from instrumentation edit released

Real-Time Accountability of Tank Terminal Automation

With the Tank Terminal Automation, facilities can improve the visibility and accountability of all products stored at the terminal. Tank Terminal Automation operators are able to reconcile book versus physical inventory for all managed products, including additives, blends and co-mingled products.

The Tank Terminal Automation can lock down accounting periods, automatically create close-out reports and quickly identify variances. The daily management of product inventory allows for improved billing cycles. All of this data is also available at the enterprise to provide greater insight into an organization’s total stock position.

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Types of Level Gauges

Level gauge is a device which is used to show the level of fluids in fields. Depending on the type of application used, the type of level gauge should be selected. Level gauge is a direct method for measuring the level.

Level gauge consists of a metal body, machined to have an internal chamber and one or more front windows. On each window a special high resistance glass is used with sealing joint and metal cover plate hold by bolts and nuts.

Level devices operate under three main different principles:

  1. The position (height) of the liquid surface
  2. The pressure head
  3.  The weight of the material

Types of Level Gauge:

There are commonly 3 types of level gauges used:

  1. Reflex level gauge
  2. Transparent level gauge
  3. Magnetic type level gauge

Reflex level gauge:

Reflex glass level gauges working principle is based on the light refraction and reflection laws.

Reflex glass level gauges use glasses having the face fitted towards the chamber shaped to have prismatic grooves with section angle of 90°. When in operation, the chamber is filled with liquid in the lower part and gases or vapors in the upper part.

The liquid level is well-known by different brightness of the glass in the liquid and in the gas/vapor zone. The reflex level gauges do not need a specific illumination. The day light is enough for seeing the level.

Application of automatic tank gauge system

Automatic tank gauge system can accurately monitor your tank in real time. Windbell’s automatic tank gauge systems include SP series magnetostrictive probe and SS series console or SM controller.

Whatever and wherever you want of product level, water level, five-point temperature, inventory, delivery and sales information, Windbell’s automatic tank gauging system will always here to help you easily reach the target.

Magnetostrictive Probe

Magnetostrictive probe is the core component of automatic tank gauge (ATG), and it adopts latest magnetostrictive technology, can accurately measure the product level, water level and temperature in tank.

Automatic Tank Gauge Console

SS series smart console is the operation platform, the data processing and record center, and also offer safety and reliable power to probe.

This article comes from windbellatg edit released

Common Servo Gauge Technologies and How They Work

The intelligent servo gauge Proservo NMS5 is designed for high accuracy liquid level measurement in custody transfer and inventory control applications.

It fulfills the exact demands of tank inventory management and loss control and is optimized in regards of total cost saving and safe operation.

This article comes from endress edit released

What is Reflex Level Gauge?

Liquid Level Gauge provides direct observation of liquid level in a tank/vessel rising and falling level of the liquid inside the tank/vessel can be observed through the glass assembled in the gauge.

Reflex Level Gauge use the R-form sight glasses. One side surface of Reflex Glass to use flat glass has several grooves for reflecting prism. The principle of the Reflex Glass is based on the difference in the refractive indices of liquid and gas or in particular of water and steam. Liquid level shows conspicuously dark hard colour for liquid space and light white colour for empty space. These Reflex series are not used with a mica shield.

Reflex Level Gauge

The Reflex Gauge is assembled firmly with gasket, reflex glass, cushion gasket and gauge cover on the body by U-bolts. Reflex Liquid Level Gauges, designed and built for a wide range of high temperature and high pressure applications.

The most advantage of this type is for easy level reading of boiling liquids. When liquids are boiling, their bubbles make the surface level indistinct. The manual adjustment of isolation valve at the input of the media entering the chamber reduces the bubbling.

Therefore the level gauge ease to read the level or bubbling liquids. It also provides advantages for highly dense and viscous liquids, as the body is made of forged construction only. This level gauge is designed and manufactured for easy and accurate reading the liquid level of highly foamy liquids. The gauge has a relatively spacious internal area where foamy liquid is held from forming foams.

Reflex Level Gauge Construction

The gauge consists of a body having machined to have a liquid where high temperature are liable to occur, the glass is toughened borosilicate glasses are used.

These reflex gauges preferably used for reservoir tanks that require a relatively long visible length by constructing the supporter. The reflex level gauge is assembled firmly with gasket, reflex glass, cushion gasket and gauge cover on the body by U bolts.

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Tank gauge for LPG LNG

The Tank Gauge for LPG LNG is designed to measure level in fuel tanks containing liquefied gases. Accurate measurement is possible regardless of the tank atmospheric conditions. Flexible hardware and software modules ensure easy adaptation for measurements in any kind of liquefied gases, such as LPG (Propane, Butane), LEG (Ethylene), and LNG.


The Tank Gauge for LPG LNG employs the Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) principle. A frequency sweeping microwave signal is emitted by the Radar through a stand pipe. The distance is derived from the time delay of the reflected signal from the liquid surface. The stand pipe is delivered to match the total tank height. The pipes have ventilation holes allowing the vapour pressure inside and outside the pipe to stabilize, thus allowing the liquid to rise or fall unimpeded in the pipe.

The electronic unit in the Radar Tank Gauge for LPG LNG includes a unique signal detection method that ensures optimum performance. Combined with its superb signalto- noise ratio, it offers a high measurement reliability and accuracy.

Each Tank Gauge for LPG LNG is connected to a dedicated signal processing unit, which includes the processing of radar microwave signals and the intrinsically safe interface to the instruments located in hazardous area.

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Tank Terminal Automation System

Tank Terminal Automation Systems find applications primarily in Trucks /Wagon fuel loading. Fuels include Motor Spirit (MS), Diesel, Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF), Naphtha, Superior Kerosene Oil (SKO), Furnace Oil, (Diesel High Pour Point) DHPP, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Chemicals.

The Flowmeters used are generally PD Meters or Coriolis Mass Flowmeters. The Batch Controllers supplied conform to OIML R117 capable of simultaneous Additive Injection and Ethanol Blending with Ratio Control and Our AMC includes hassle-free service at all times leading to enhanced performance and higher productivity.

Security Surveillance

We deliver solutions for security surveillance, CCTV, Access Control systems for public utilities, oil depots and terminals.

This article comes from chemtrols edit released

The Benefits of Installing an Automatic Tank Gauge System

How Installing an Automatic Tank Gauge System Can Save Your Fleet Time and Money

Automatic tank gauge systems, or ATG’s are excellent additions to your fleet’s maintenance program. An ATG is an electronic component placed within an above or below ground tank that monitors fuel or lubricant volume over time to assess whether the tank is leaking fluid. Besides monitoring for leakage, Automatic tank monitoring systems are also instrumental in gauging fluid levels, usage based on volume, tank temperature and can alert operators with warnings when tank volumes are too high or have reached a critical low. Additional functionality of an automatic tank gauge system allows for measurements of any gaps existing within the connections between tanks, pipes and hose lines, as well as the monitoring of system pressurization. Modern ATG’s are sophisticated monitoring systems that can be either wired or remotely accessed via a wireless modem.

How Does an Automatic Tank Gauge Work

Automatic tank monitoring gauges operate by either using a probe made up of a rod with floats and connected sensors or a pressure monitoring sensor to measure the level of fluids in a tank. The probes also come equipped with thermistors – electrical resistors used for the measurement and control of temperature within the tank. Both wired and wireless ATG systems transmit data to a centralized console where information is stored and printed and where an internal alarm system is activated when fluid levels reach a critical volume or temperature fluctuates to undesirable levels.

Continuous and Periodic Testing

To monitor results within a tank system, ATG’s can be programmed to follow either a continuous or periodic testing schedule. Continuous testing allows for the ongoing testing of tank levels based on data collection during intervals of time that the tank is not being used for fuel or fluid dispensation. In these interim periods of inactivity the automatic tank gauge gathers information and creates an average data analysis to determine whether or not a tank is intact or leaking. For periodic testing a tank system must be shut down and removed from operations for a period of several hours, generally throughout the course of a night. During this time there can be no fuel delivery or dispensation and fluctuations in tank volume determine whether or not the tank is leaking or intact.

Problems with ATG Systems and Testing

Like so many other problems in life, human error is to blame for the bulk of malfunctions associated with ATG testing. With sensors designed to alert operators by way of specific alarms that go off when the tank volume or temperature fluctuates beyond indicated levels, ignoring or disregarding alarms is a big problem. With the sounding of an alarm, the ATG is communicating that there is a problem in one of the designated areas of analysis and by not investigating or remedying the situation, facility operators run the risk of overflowing, overheating, running out of or freezing their fluids and fuel. While ATG’s are instrumental in detecting leaking tanks, not all alarms are the result of a leak, but by ignoring an alarm or light sensor, you eliminate the effectiveness of your ATG system.

The Benefits of Installing an ATG

With ongoing measurement of tank levels and temperature you can insure the integrity of your product while also preventing costly inventory loss and the environmental costs associated with cleanup from a leak. ATG’s are sophisticated monitoring systems that can detect fluctuations in tank volume and alert operators when there is a minimal or substantial leak. Temperature measurements monitor the integrity of fluids like gasoline, which pressurizes in response to an increase or drop in temperature as it expands and contracts. Because of the expanding and contracting nature of certain fluids, ATG testing requires a window of time post-delivery to allow for the stabilization of temperature within the tank. Another key benefit to installing an automatic tank gauge system is reassurance that you will always have enough fuel on hand to satisfy your inventory needs. With an ATG system you will be alerted when it’s time to re-order and refill, and deliveries can even be setup to be automated, freeing up your facility manager and warehouse operators for other tasks.

As ATG technology continues to evolve, we remains steadfast in ATG software solutions to help maximize Just-In-Time deliveries and inventory transparency with our customers. Having an ATG solution that focuses specifically on your fluid inventory needs provides peace of mind you need so you can focus on your customers and your business needs.

This article comes from sclubricants edit released

Benefits of Tank Gauge System

Fuel is an asset. Protecting this asset and using it wisely is crucial to a profitable operation. That’s where a fuel tank gauge system can pay big dividends, as they work to do more than just measure the level of fuel left in storage tanks but also save money and increase efficiency in a variety of ways.

With sensors and other data-tracking components incorporated into the fuel framework, owners and operators stay aware of everything from fuel levels to temperature, pressure, and other key details.

Below we’ll take a closer look at the importance of fuel tank monitoring and some of the biggest advantages.

Characteristics Of The Best Fuel Tank Gauge Systems

Fuel is a resource, and protecting that resource ensures you’re able to maximize it along with your day-to-day operations. Fuel tank monitoring is also important for staying in compliance with certain environmental regulations.

Increase operational efficiency with rapid response

Fuel tank gauge systems can manage all aspects of fuel, from its procurement, to usage, its condition and even its eventual sale.

Essentially, fuel tank gauge systems allow owners and operators to increase their operational efficiency by real time tracking of key metrics involved in important decisions. And with remote sensors, owners and operators can even monitor and make adjustments remotely.

If an issue is detected, you are immediately alerted so adjustments or repairs can begin sooner and based on what is happening now, not data from days or weeks ago. This not only protects your investment and minimizes lost fuel and downtime.

Environmental compliance

Fuel tanks require routine maintenance. As they age, factors such as rust or algae growth not only impact the quality of the fuel, but can also have environmental impacts. In the event a fuel tank is damaged, there is the potential for fuel to escape, possibly contaminating soil and or groundwater in the area.

One of the big advantages of a fuel tank gauge system is the speed at which issues are detected allowing for faster repairs and minimizing the environmental impact.

This article comes from totalenvironmental edit released